**Titrations**

The amount of acid or base in a solution can be determined by **titration**.The
process of **titration** involves a solution of known concentration
(titrant) delivered from a buret into the solution of unknown concentration
until the stoichiometric point is achieved. The key point in acid-base
titration is to calculate the pH of the solution when different amount
of the titrant are added. A **pH curve** is a plot of the pH changes
in the solution as a function of the amount of titrant added.

There are three types of Acid-Base **titration**:

- Strong Acid-Strong Base Titrations
- Titrations of Weak Acids with Strong Bases
- Titrations of Weak Bases with Strong Acids

The **millimole** (abbreviated **mmol**) is very common unit used
in titrations:

mmol = Molarity x mL solution
= 10^{-3} mol

*This
module is for one of the three possible cases of titration. By choosing
a titrant of known concentration and an unknown solution, the key numbers
(initial pH, pH at the equilibrium point and the volume needed to get
the equilibrium) and pH curves can be calculated.*

**Strong Acid-Strong Base Titrations**

In the titration of 80.0mL of 0.300M HNO_{3} with 0.200M NaOH,

- When 120.0mL of 0.200M NaOH has been added

Initial moles of H^{+} = 24.0mmol

Added OH^{-} moles = 120.0mL x 0.200M = 24.0mmol

At this point, enough OH^{-} has been added to react completely
with the H^{+} from the HNO_{3}, so the solution is neutral
(pH = 7.00)

This is one step
process, enter the known data and press **Calculate** to output the
unknowns.

1. Select **Strong Acid/Strong
Base** link from the front page or **Strong
Acid/Strong Base** tab from the **Acid****,
Base****and Salt**
module. The Input and Output screen appears.

2. In the **Input** area, enter the known quantities
with a proper significant figure with
the above example.

3. Click **Calculate** to output the answer.

4. The **Show Work** area on the right shows you step-by-step how
your problem has been solved.

To start a new problem, click **Reset**. All Input fields will be
cleared. Follow Step 1-3 again.